Athletics Therapy    
Recent News |  Archives |  Tags |  Newsletter |  Message Board/Forum |  About |  Links |  Subscribe to AthleticsTherapy.com RSS Feed Subscribe


More Articles
Improvements in fuel cell designImprovements in fuel cell design

Rediscovering Venus to find faraway earths

Archaeologists discover bronze remains of Iron Age chariot

Researchers resolve the Karakoram glacier anomaly, a cold case of climate science

Fish tale: New study evaluates antibiotic content in farm-raised fishFish tale: New study evaluates antibiotic content in farm-raised fish

New 3-D display technology promises greater energy efficiencyNew 3-D display technology promises greater energy efficiency

Researchers break nano barrier to engineer the first protein microfiberResearchers break nano barrier to engineer the first protein microfiber

Magnetic mirrors enable new technologies by reflecting light in uncanny ways

Structure of an iron-transport protein revealedStructure of an iron-transport protein revealed

First step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagusFirst step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagus

Lift weights, improve your memory

Spiders: Survival of the fittest group

Autophagy helps fast track stem cell activationAutophagy helps fast track stem cell activation

Myelin vital for learning new practical skillsMyelin vital for learning new practical skills

More physical activity improved school performanceMore physical activity improved school performance

Around the world in 400,000 years: The journey of the red foxAround the world in 400,000 years: The journey of the red fox

Engineering new vehicle powertrainsEngineering new vehicle powertrains

Active aging is much more than exerciseActive aging is much more than exercise

Study: New device can slow, reverse heart failureStudy: New device can slow, reverse heart failure

Are the world's religions ready for ET?Are the world's religions ready for ET?

Gut bacteria, artificial sweeteners and glucose intoleranceGut bacteria, artificial sweeteners and glucose intolerance

Recreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networksRecreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networks

Laying the groundwork for data-driven scienceLaying the groundwork for data-driven science

Hold on, tiger momHold on, tiger mom

Nature's designs inspire research into new light-based technologiesNature's designs inspire research into new light-based technologies

Biologists delay the aging process by 'remote control'Biologists delay the aging process by 'remote control'

Geography matters: Model predicts how local 'shocks' influence U.S. economyGeography matters: Model predicts how local 'shocks' influence U.S. economy

Identified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonationIdentified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonation

Copied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithmsCopied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithms

Danger of repeat head injuries: Brain's inability to tap energy source (11/20/2014)

<
Tags:
brain injury, concussion, head, head injuries, inflammation, injuries, injury, military, traumatic brain injury

Two or more serious hits to the head within days of each other can interfere with the brain's ability to use sugar - its primary energy source - to repair cells damaged by the injuries, new research suggests.

The brain's ability to use energy is critical after an injury. In animal studies, Ohio State University scientists have shown that brain cells ramp up their energy use six days after a concussion to recover from the damage. If a second injury occurs before that surge of energy use starts, the brain loses its best chance to recover.

In mice, the lack of energy use for recovery led to inflammation, degeneration of brain cell segments and problems with learning and memory.

In new work presented Sunday (11/16) at Neuroscience 2014, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, these same scientists have observed that even if the required glucose is present in the brain, faulty insulin signals in an injured brain don't allow cells to take up the sugar and use it.

All clinical signs suggest that two head injuries close together are dangerous and can even be deadly. But the science behind what's actually going on in the brain is still unclear - and knowing these details could help in deciding when to return athletes to play or military members to service, said lead author Zachary Weil, assistant professor of neuroscience at Ohio State.

"Lots of data show that if two head injuries occur close together, it's not like 1 plus 1. It's more like 1 plus 10," Weil said. "So our goals are to understand what it is about injuries close together that makes us more vulnerable, and can we eventually use some sort of biological signal to tell when it's safe to go back?"

Weil said the discovery that insulin resistance plays a role in brain recovery after injury could also help explain the development of a brain disease seen in professional athletes who have had multiple traumas to the head - chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. Several CTE symptoms resemble Alzheimer's disease - memory problems, disorientation and trouble concentrating - and the link between defective insulin signals and Alzheimer's is already established.

"With injury, the damaged cells are not able to use energy even though they need it and the glucose is there. It appears that's because the signals are messed up," he said. "It's the same thing seen in Alzheimer's patients. Cells are chronically undernourished even though the sugar level might be high."

In earlier animal studies, Weil and colleagues compared the effects of head injuries that occurred either three days or 20 days apart. Of all the animals, the mice injured three days apart had higher inflammation in the brain, more degeneration of axons - the long, slender extension of the nerve cell body - and problems learning how to navigate a maze and remembering the lessons they did manage to learn. Neurons need healthy axons to communicate with each other.

Mice with a single injury or head blows 20 days apart both showed the surge in brain energy use six days after the injury. The brains in mice injured three days apart never developed such a high level of glucose use.

"With the second injury, demands for energy might outstrip the ability of the damaged cells to actually use the energy," Weil said.

This research was published in a recent issue of the journal Neurobiology of Disease.

In follow-up work presented at the Society for Neuroscience, the researchers examined brain tissue in mice that had experienced no injury, one concussion or two head injures 24 hours apart. After treating the tissue with insulin, the scientists measured activation levels of a key protein in the insulin signaling process. In mice with no injury, the protein activation was increased by the presence of insulin. But the injured brains did not respond to the presence of insulin at all. Without activation of those signals, brain cells have no way to make use of their glucose energy source.

"This means that traumatic brain injury induces insulin resistance in the brain," Weil said. "So we need to work on finding ways to acutely increase insulin sensitivity rather than increasing the actual amount of insulin in the brain."

Weil conducted the research with co-authors Kristopher Gaier and Kate Karelina, both of Ohio State's Department of Neuroscience.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by the Ohio State University

Post Comments:

Search
New Articles
Researchers build computer models to analyze play in pro basketball and soccer

A new way to diagnose brain damage from concussions, strokes and dementiaA new way to diagnose brain damage from concussions, strokes and dementia

Light-based technology tracks oxygen levels underwater for swim performance, muscle repair

Where hockey and engineering collide: NJIT Highlanders join a pioneering concussion studyWhere hockey and engineering collide: NJIT Highlanders join a pioneering concussion study

Do concussions have lingering cognitive, physical, and emotional effects?Do concussions have lingering cognitive, physical, and emotional effects?

WHACK! Study measures head blows in girls' lacrosseWHACK! Study measures head blows in girls' lacrosse

Athletes perform better when exposed to subliminal visual cues

High school football players show brain changes after one seasonHigh school football players show brain changes after one season

Researchers identify protein that predicts post-concussion severity in professional athletes

Athletes' testosterone surges not tied to winning, study finds

The American athletics track is still a man's world

Symmetrical knees linked to Jamaican sprinting prowess

Danger of repeat head injuries: Brain's inability to tap energy source

Do spinal cord injuries cause subsequent brain damage?

Enriched environments hold promise for brain injury patients



Archives
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010


  Archives |  Submit News |  Advertise With Us |  Contact Us |  Links
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. All contents © 2000 - 2019 AthleticsTherapy.com. All rights reserved.